Bladder cancer References


This evidence summary was written by:

William B. Grant, Ph.D.
Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center (SUNARC)
P.O. Box 641603
San Francisco, CA 94164-1603, USA

The summary was reviewed by:

Jan Colli <>

Complete bibliography of research used in this summary

We found a significant body of evidence when researching the role of vitamin D in bladder cancer. The research we have cited in our summary is listed below, with links to PubMed abstracts and full-text for those who wish to explore further.


Page last edited: 24 August 2011


  1. Bahar-Shany, K. Ravid, A. Koren, R. Upregulation of MMP-9 production by TNFalpha in keratinocytes and its attenuation by vitamin D. J Cell Physiol. 2010 Mar; 222 (3): 729-37.
  2. Baris, D. Karagas, M. R. Verrill, C. Johnson, A. Andrew, A. S. Marsit, C. J. Schwenn, M. Colt, J. S. Cherala, S. Samanic, C. Waddell, R. Cantor, K. P. Schned, A. Rothman, N. Lubin, J. Fraumeni, J. F., Jr. Hoover, R. N. Kelsey, K. T. Silverman, D. T. A case-control study of smoking and bladder cancer risk: emergent patterns over time. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009 Nov 18; 101 (22): 1553-61.
  3. Boscoe, F. P. Schymura, M. J. Solar ultraviolet-B exposure and cancer incidence and mortality in the United States, 1993-2002. BMC Cancer. 2006; 6264.
  4. Brinkman, M. T. Karagas, M. R. Zens, M. S. Schned, A. Reulen, R. C. Zeegers, M. P. Minerals and vitamins and the risk of bladder cancer: results from the New Hampshire Study. Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Apr; 21 (4): 609-19.
  5. Brinkman, M. T. Buntinx, F. Kellen, E. Dagnelie, P. C. Van Dongen, M. C. Muls, E. Zeegers, M. P. Dietary intake of micronutrients and the risk of developing bladder cancer: results from the Belgian case-control study on bladder cancer risk. Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Mar; 22 (3): 469-78.
  6. Cantor, K. P. Lynch, C. F. Hildesheim, M. E. Dosemeci, M. Lubin, J. Alavanja, M. Craun, G. Drinking water source and chlorination byproducts. I. Risk of bladder cancer. Epidemiology. 1998 Jan; 9 (1): 21-8.
  7. Chen, W. Clements, M. Rahman, B. Zhang, S. Qiao, Y. Armstrong, B. K. Relationship between cancer mortality/incidence and ambient ultraviolet B irradiance in China. Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Jun 16;
  8. Colli, J. L. Kolettis, P. N. Bladder cancer incidence and mortality rates compared to ecologic factors among states in America. Int Urol Nephrol. 2009 Oct 7;
  9. Devesa, S. S. Grauman, D. J. Blot, W. J. Pennello, G. A. Hoover, R. N. Fraumeni, J. F. Jr. Atlas of Cancer Mortality in the United States, 1950-1994. NIH Publication No. 99-4564. 1999 April 17, 2010;
  10. Gandini, S. Boniol, M. Haukka, J. Byrnes, G. Cox, B. Sneyd, M. J. Mullie, P. Autier, P. Meta-analysis of observational studies of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and colorectal, breast and prostate cancer and colorectal adenoma. Int J Cancer. 2010 May 6;
  11. Garland, C. F. Gorham, E. D. Mohr, S. B. Garland, F. C. Vitamin D for cancer prevention: global perspective. Ann Epidemiol. 2009 Jul; 19 (7): 468-83.
  12. Giovannucci, E. Liu, Y. Rimm, E. B. Hollis, B. W. Fuchs, C. S. Stampfer, M. J. Willett, W. C. Prospective study of predictors of vitamin D status and cancer incidence and mortality in men. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006 Apr 5; 98 (7): 451-9.
  13. Goebell, P. J. Villanueva, C. M. Rettenmeier, A. W. Rubben, H. Kogevinas, M. Environmental exposure, chlorinated drinking water, and bladder cancer. World J Urol. 2004 Feb; 21 (6): 424-32.
  14. Grant, W. B. An estimate of premature cancer mortality in the U.S. due to inadequate doses of solar ultraviolet-B radiation. Cancer. 2002 Mar 15; 94 (6): 1867-75.
  15. Grant, W. B. Air pollution in relation to U.S. cancer mortality rates: an ecological study; likely role of carbonaceous aerosols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Anticancer Res. 2009 Sep; 29 (9): 3537-45.
  16. Grant, W. B. Benefits of vitamin D in reducing the risk of cancer: Time to include vitamin D in cancer treatment?. J Soc Integr Oncol. 2010 Summer; 8 (3): 81-8.
  17. Grant, W. B. Relation between prediagnostic serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and incidence of breast, colorectal, and other cancers. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2010 May 12;
  18. Grant, W. B. Garland, C. F. The association of solar ultraviolet B (UVB) with reducing risk of cancer: multifactorial ecologic analysis of geographic variation in age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. Anticancer Res. 2006 Jul-Aug; 26 (4A): 2687-99.
  19. Grant, W. B. Effect of interval between serum draw and follow-up period on relative risk of cancer incidence with respect to 25-hydroxyvitamin D level; implications for meta-analyses and setting vitamin D guidelines. Dermato-endocrinology. 2011; 3 (3):
  20. Hyppönen, E. Power, C. Hypovitaminosis D in British adults at age 45 y: nationwide cohort study of dietary and lifestyle predictors. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar; 85 (3): 860-8.
  21. Ingraham, B. A. Bragdon, B. Nohe, A. Molecular basis of the potential of vitamin D to prevent cancer. Curr Med Res Opin. 2008 Jan; 24 (1): 139-49.
  22. Kostner, K. Denzer, N. Muller, C. S. Klein, R. Tilgen, W. Reichrath, J. The relevance of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms for cancer: a review of the literature. Anticancer Res. 2009 Sep; 29 (9): 3511-36.
  23. Krishnan, A. V. Swami, S. Feldman, D. Vitamin D and breast cancer: inhibition of estrogen synthesis and signaling. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010 Jul; 121 (1-2): 343-8.
  24. Lappe, J.M. Travers-Gustafson, D. Davies, K.M. Recker, R.R. Heaney, R.P. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun; 85 (6): 1586-91.
  25. Ma, Y. Yu, W. D. Trump, D. L. Johnson, C. S. 1,25D3 enhances antitumor activity of gemcitabine and cisplatin in human bladder cancer models. Cancer. 2010 Jul 1; 116 (13): 3294-303.
  26. Michaud, D. S. Spiegelman, D. Clinton, S. K. Rimm, E. B. Willett, W. C. Giovannucci, E. Prospective study of dietary supplements, macronutrients, micronutrients, and risk of bladder cancer in US men. Am J Epidemiol. 2000 Dec 15; 152 (12): 1145-53.
  27. Mohr, S. B. Garland, C. F. Gorham, E. D. Grant, W. B. Garland, F. C. Ultraviolet B irradiance and incidence rates of bladder cancer in 174 countries. Am J Prev Med. 2010 Mar; 38 (3): 296-302.
  28. Morris, R. D. Audet, A. M. Angelillo, I. F. Chalmers, T. C. Mosteller, F. Chlorination, chlorination by-products, and cancer: a meta-analysis. Am J Public Health. 1992 Jul; 82 (7): 955-63.
  29. Newton, R. Roman, E. Fear, N. Carpenter, L. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and solar ultraviolet radiation. Data are inconsistent. BMJ. 1996 Aug 3; 313 (7052): 298.
  30. Offersen, B. V. Knap, M. M. Horsman, M. R. Verheijen, J. Hanemaaijer, R. Overgaard, J. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 measured in urine from bladder cancer patients is an independent prognostic marker of poor survival. Acta Oncol. 2010 Nov; 49 (8): 1283-7.
  31. Samanic, C. Kogevinas, M. Dosemeci, M. Malats, N. Real, F. X. Garcia-Closas, M. Serra, C. Carrato, A. Garcia-Closas, R. Sala, M. Lloreta, J. Tardon, A. Rothman, N. Silverman, D. T. Smoking and bladder cancer in Spain: effects of tobacco type, timing, environmental tobacco smoke, and gender. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 Jul; 15 (7): 1348-54.
  32. Srivastava, P. Mandhani, A. Kapoor, R. Mittal, R. D. Role of MMP-3 and MMP-9 and their haplotypes in risk of bladder cancer in North Indian cohort. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010 Nov; 17 (11): 3068-75.
  33. Symowicz, J. Adley, B. P. Gleason, K. J. Johnson, J. J. Ghosh, S. Fishman, D. A. Hudson, L. G. Stack, M. S. Engagement of collagen-binding integrins promotes matrix metalloproteinase-9-dependent E-cadherin ectodomain shedding in ovarian carcinoma cells. Cancer Res. 2007 Mar 1; 67 (5): 2030-9.
  34. Tuohimaa, P. Pukkala, E. Scelo, G. Olsen, J. H. Brewster, D. H. Hemminki, K. Tracey, E. Weiderpass, E. Kliewer, E. V. Pompe-Kirn, V. McBride, M. L. Martos, C. Chia, K. S. Tonita, J. M. Jonasson, J. G. Boffetta, P. Brennan, P. Does solar exposure, as indicated by the non-melanoma skin cancers, protect from solid cancers: vitamin D as a possible explanation. Eur J Cancer. 2007 Jul; 43 (11): 1701-12.
  35. Vena, J. E. Graham, S. Freudenheim, J. Marshall, J. Zielezny, M. Swanson, M. Sufrin, G. Diet in the epidemiology of bladder cancer in western New York. Nutr Cancer. 1992; 18 (3): 255-64.
  36. Yin, L. Grandi, N. Raum, E. Haug, U. Arndt, V. Brenner, H. Meta-analysis: longitudinal studies of serum vitamin D and colorectal cancer risk. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Jul 1; 30 (2): 113-25.
  37. Yin, L. Grandi, N. Raum, E. Haug, U. Arndt, V. Brenner, H. Meta-analysis: serum vitamin D and breast cancer risk. Eur J Cancer. 2010 Aug; 46 (12): 2196-205.