Prostate cancerReferences


This evidence summary was written by:

William B. Grant, Ph.D.
Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center (SUNARC)
P.O. Box 641603
San Francisco, CA 94164-1603, USA

Last updated

June 2011

Complete bibliography of research used in this summary

We found a significant body of evidence when researching the role of vitamin D in prostate cancer.  The research we have cited in our summary is listed below, with links to PubMed abstracts and full-text for those who wish to explore further.


Page last edited: 24 August 2011


  1. Ahn, J. Peters, U. Albanes, D. Purdue, M. P. Abnet, C. C. Chatterjee, N. Horst, R. L. Hollis, B. W. Huang, W. Y. Shikany, J. M. Hayes, R. B. Serum vitamin D concentration and prostate cancer risk: a nested case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 Jun 4; 100 (11): 796-804.
  2. Barnett, C. M. Nielson, C. M. Shannon, J. Chan, J. M. Shikany, J. M. Bauer, D. C. Hoffman, A. R. Barrett-Connor, E. Orwoll, E. Beer, T. M. Serum 25-OH vitamin D levels and risk of developing prostate cancer in older men. Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Aug; 21 (8): 1297-303.
  3. Bodiwala, D. Luscombe, C. J. French, M. E. Liu, S. Saxby, M. F. Jones, P. W. Fryer, A. A. Strange, R. C. Polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor gene, ultraviolet radiation, and susceptibility to prostate cancer. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2004; 43 (2): 121-7.
  4. Boucher, B. J. “Inverse correlation between serum free IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels and blood pressure in patients affected with type 1 diabetes” by Capoluongo et al. Cytokine. 2007 Mar; 37 (3): 181-2; author reply 183-4.
  5. Bower CP, Lear JT, Bygrave S, Etherington D, Harvey I, Archer CB Basal cell carcinoma and risk of subsequent malignancies: A cancer registry-based study in southwest England. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000 Jun; 42 (6): 988-91.
  6. Brittingham, A. de la Cruz, G. P. Ancestry 2000. Census 2000 Brief CK2BR-35. 2004;
  7. Colli, J. L. Colli, A. International comparisons of prostate cancer mortality rates with dietary practices and sunlight levels. Urol Oncol. 2006 May-Jun; 24 (3): 184-94.
  8. de Vries, E. Soerjomataram, I. Houterman, S. Louwman, M. W. Coebergh, J. W. Decreased risk of prostate cancer after skin cancer diagnosis: a protective role of ultraviolet radiation?. Am J Epidemiol. 2007 Apr 15; 165 (8): 966-72.
  9. Devesa, S. S. Grauman, D. J. Blot, W. J. Pennello, G. A. Hoover, R. N. Fraumeni, J. F. Jr. Atlas of Cancer Mortality in the United States, 1950-1994. NIH Publication No. 99-4564. 1999 April 17, 2010;
  10. Gandini, S. Boniol, M. Haukka, J. Byrnes, G. Cox, B. Sneyd, M. J. Mullie, P. Autier, P. Meta-analysis of observational studies of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and colorectal, breast and prostate cancer and colorectal adenoma. Int J Cancer. 2010 May 6;
  11. Gilbert, R. Metcalfe, C. Oliver, S. E. Whiteman, D. C. Bain, C. Ness, A. Donovan, J. Hamdy, F. Neal, D. E. Lane, J. A. Martin, R. M. Life course sun exposure and risk of prostate cancer: population-based nested case-control study and meta-analysis. Int J Cancer. 2009 Sep 15; 125 (6): 1414-23.
  12. Grant, W. B. The effect of solar UVB doses and vitamin D production, skin cancer action spectra, and smoking in explaining links between skin cancers and solid tumours. Eur J Cancer. 2008 Jan; 44 (1): 12-5.
  13. Grant, W. B. Vitamin D may reduce prostate cancer metastasis by several mechanisms including blocking Stat3. Am J Pathol. 2008 Nov; 173 (5): 1589-90.
  14. Grant, W. B. Critique of the U-shaped serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level-disease response relation. Dermato-endocrinology. 2009 Nov.-Dec.; 1 (6): 281-315.
  15. Grant, W. B. A multicountry ecological study of risk-modifying factors for prostate cancer: apolipoprotein E epsilon4 as a risk factor and cereals as a risk reduction factor. Anticancer Res. 2010 Jan; 30 (1): 189-99.
  16. Grant, W. B. Role of vitamin D in cancer risk reduction and treatment. J Soc Integr Oncol. 2010 summer; 8 (3): 81-8.
  17. Grant, W. B. Garland, C. F. The association of solar ultraviolet B (UVB) with reducing risk of cancer: multifactorial ecologic analysis of geographic variation in age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. Anticancer Res. 2006 Jul-Aug; 26 (4A): 2687-99.
  18. Grant, W. B. Vitamin D may reduce prostate cancer metastasis by several mechanisms including blocking Stat3. Am J Pathol. 2008 Nov; 173 (5): 1589-90.
  19. Grant, W. B. Effect of interval between serum draw and follow-up period on relative risk of cancer incidence with respect to 25-hydroxyvitamin D level; implications for meta-analyses and setting vitamin D guidelines. Dermato-endocrinology. 2011; 3 (3):
  20. Grant, W. B. The roles of ultraviolet-B irradiance, vitamin D, apolipoprotein E epsilon4, and diet in the risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Jan; 22 (1): 157-8.
  21. Gupta, D. Lammersfeld, C. A. Trukova, K. Lis, C. G. Vitamin D and prostate cancer risk: a review of the epidemiological literature. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2009 Apr 7;
  22. Halthur, C. Johansson, A. L. Almquist, M. Malm, J. Gronberg, H. Manjer, J. Dickman, P. W. Serum calcium and the risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 2009 Sep; 20 (7): 1205-14.
  23. Hanchette, C. L. Schwartz, G. G. Geographic patterns of prostate cancer mortality. Evidence for a protective effect of ultraviolet radiation. Cancer. 1992 Dec 15; 70 (12): 2861-9.
  24. Huncharek, M. Muscat, J. Kupelnick, B. Dairy products, dietary calcium and vitamin D intake as risk factors for prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of 26,769 cases from 45 observational studies. Nutr Cancer. 2008; 60 (4): 421-41.
  25. Hypponen, E. Boucher, B. J. Berry, D. J. Power, C. 25-hydroxyvitamin D, IGF-1, and metabolic syndrome at 45 years of age: a cross-sectional study in the 1958 British Birth Cohort. Diabetes. 2008 Feb; 57 (2): 298-305.
  26. Iso, H. Ikeda, A. Inoue, M. Sato, S. Tsugane, S. Serum cholesterol levels in relation to the incidence of cancer: The JPHC Study Cohorts. Int J Cancer. 2009 Jun 19;
  27. Lim, U. Freedman, D. M. Hollis, B. W. Horst, R. L. Purdue, M. P. Chatterjee, N. Weinstein, S. J. Morton, L. M. Schatzkin, A. Virtamo, J. Linet, M. S. Hartge, P. Albanes, D. A prospective investigation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of lymphoid cancers. Int J Cancer. 2009 Feb 15; 124 (4): 979-86.
  28. Park, S. Y. Cooney, R. V. Wilkens, L. R. Murphy, S. P. Henderson, B. E. Kolonel, L. N. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and prostate cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort. Eur J Cancer. 2010 Mar; 46 (5): 932-6.
  29. Robsahm, T. E. Tretli, S. Dahlback, A. Moan, J. Vitamin D3 from sunlight may improve the prognosis of breast-, colon- and prostate cancer (Norway). Cancer Causes Control. 2004 Mar; 15 (2): 149-58.
  30. Rukin, N. J. Zeegers, M. P. Ramachandran, S. Luscombe, C. J. Liu, S. Saxby, M. Lear, J. Strange, R. C. A comparison of sunlight exposure in men with prostate cancer and basal cell carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 2007 Feb 12; 96 (3): 523-8.
  31. Schumacher, F. R. Cheng, I. Freedman, M. L. Mucci, L. Allen, N. E. Pollak, M. N. Hayes, R. B. Stram, D. O. Canzian, F. Henderson, B. E. Hunter, D. J. Virtamo, J. Manjer, J. Gaziano, J. M. Kolonel, L. N. Tjonneland, A. Albanes, D. Calle, E. E. Giovannucci, E. Crawford, E. D. Haiman, C. A. Kraft, P. Willett, W. C. Thun, M. J. Le Marchand, L. Kaaks, R. Feigelson, H. S. Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B. Palli, D. Riboli, E. Lund, E. Amiano, P. Andriole, G. Dunning, A. M. Trichopoulos, D. Stampfer, M. J. Key, T. J. Ma, J. A comprehensive analysis of common IGF1, IGFBP1 and IGFBP3 genetic variation with prospective IGF-I and IGFBP-3 blood levels and prostate cancer risk among Caucasians. Hum Mol Genet. 2010 Aug 1; 19 (15): 3089-101.
  32. Schwartz, G. G. Prostate cancer, serum parathyroid hormone, and the progression of skeletal metastases. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Mar; 17 (3): 478-83.
  33. Schwartz, G. G. Vitamin D and intervention trials in prostate cancer: from theory to therapy. Ann Epidemiol. 2009 Feb; 19 (2): 96-102.
  34. Schwartz, G. G. Vitamin D deficiency and the epidemiology of prostate cancer. Vitamin D; Physiology, Molecular Biology, and Clinical Applications. 2010; 797-811.
  35. Schwartz, G. G. Hanchette, C. L. UV, latitude, and spatial trends in prostate cancer mortality: all sunlight is not the same (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 2006 Oct; 17 (8): 1091-101.
  36. Schwartz, G. G. Hulka, B. S. Is vitamin D deficiency a risk factor for prostate cancer? (Hypothesis). Anticancer Res. 1990 Sep-Oct; 10 (5A): 1307-11.
  37. Skinner, H. G. Litzelman, K. Schwartz, G. G. Recent clinical trials of vitamin D3 supplementation and serum calcium levels in humans: Implications for vitamin D-based chemoprevention. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2010 Jun; 11 (6): 678-87.
  38. Skinner, H. G. Schwartz, G. G. A prospective study of total and ionized serum calcium and fatal prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Feb; 18 (2): 575-8.
  39. Skowronski, R. J. Peehl, D. M. Feldman, D. Vitamin D and prostate cancer: 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptors and actions in human prostate cancer cell lines. Endocrinology. 1993 May; 132 (5): 1952-60.
  40. Soerjomataram, I. de Vries, E. Response: Risk of prostate, breast and colorectal cancer after skin cancer diagnosis. Int J Cancer. 2009 Apr 1; 124 (7): 1739-40; author reply 1743-4.
  41. Travis, R. C. Crowe, F. L. Allen, N. E. Appleby, P. N. Roddam, A. W. Tjonneland, A. Olsen, A. Linseisen, J. Kaaks, R. Boeing, H. Kroger, J. Trichopoulou, A. Dilis, V. Trichopoulos, D. Vineis, P. Palli, D. Tumino, R. Sieri, S. Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B. van Duijnhoven, F. J. Chirlaque, M. D. Barricarte, A. Larranaga, N. Gonzalez, C. A. Arguelles, M. V. Sanchez, M. J. Stattin, P. Hallmans, G. Khaw, K. T. Bingham, S. Rinaldi, S. Slimani, N. Jenab, M. Riboli, E. Key, T. J. Serum Vitamin D and Risk of Prostate Cancer in a Case-Control Analysis Nested Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Apr 9;
  42. Tretli, S. Hernes, E. Berg, J. P. Hestvik, U. E. Robsahm, T. E. Association between serum 25(OH)D and death from prostate cancer. Br J Cancer. 2009 Feb 10; 100 (3): 450-4.
  43. Tuohimaa, P. Lyakhovich, A. Aksenov, N. Pennanen, P. Syvala, H. Lou, Y. R. Ahonen, M. Hasan, T. Pasanen, P. Blauer, M. Manninen, T. Miettinen, S. Vilja, P. Ylikomi, T. Vitamin D and prostate cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2001 Jan-Mar; 76 (1-5): 125-34.
  44. Tuohimaa, P. Tenkanen, L. Ahonen, M. Lumme, S. Jellum, E. Hallmans, G. Stattin, P. Harvei, S. Hakulinen, T. Luostarinen, T. Dillner, J. Lehtinen, M. Hakama, M. Both high and low levels of blood vitamin D are associated with a higher prostate cancer risk: a longitudinal, nested case-control study in the Nordic countries. Int J Cancer. 2004 Jan 1; 108 (1): 104-8.
  45. Tuohimaa, P. Pukkala, E. Scelo, G. Olsen, J. H. Brewster, D. H. Hemminki, K. Tracey, E. Weiderpass, E. Kliewer, E. V. Pompe-Kirn, V. McBride, M. L. Martos, C. Chia, K. S. Tonita, J. M. Jonasson, J. G. Boffetta, P. Brennan, P. Does solar exposure, as indicated by the non-melanoma skin cancers, protect from solid cancers: vitamin D as a possible explanation. Eur J Cancer. 2007 Jul; 43 (11): 1701-12.
  46. Tuohimaa, P. Tenkanen, L. Ahonen, M. Lumme, S. Jellum, E. Hallmans, G. Stattin, P. Harvei, S. Hakulinen, T. Luostarinen, T. Dillner, J. Lehtinen, M. Hakama, M. Both high and low levels of blood vitamin D are associated with a higher prostate cancer risk: a longitudinal, nested case-control study in the Nordic countries. Int J Cancer. 2004 Jan 1; 108 (1): 104-8.
  47. Tuohimaa, P. Tenkanen, L. Syvala, H. Lumme, S. Hakulinen, T. Dillner, J. Hakama, M. Interaction of factors related to the metabolic syndrome and vitamin D on risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Feb; 16 (2): 302-7.
  48. Yin, L. Raum, E. Haug, U. Arndt, V. Brenner, H. Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies: Serum vitamin D and prostate cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol. 2009 Dec; 33 (6): 435-45.
  49. Yin, M. Wei, S. Wei, Q. Vitamin D Receptor Genetic Polymorphisms and Prostate Cancer Risk: A Meta-analysis of 36 Published Studies. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2009; 2 (2): 159-75.