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The epidemiological evidence is largely based on cases and controls drawn from prospective cohort studies (nested case-control studies), looking at incidence rates with respect to prediagnostic serum 25(OH)D1234567. Those who develop CVD (cases) are then studied in greater detail and individuals who match the cases on a number of points are used as controls.
This approach has been very useful in determining a number of risk-modifying factors for various diseases.
The observational studies have nearly all found statistically significant reduced risk of CVD at the higher 25(OH)D levels compared to the lower levels. When combined in a meta-analysis, the odds ratio for highest vs. lowest 25(OH)D level was 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.81), i.e., a 33% reduced risk of developing CVD8.
Page last edited: 04 May 2011
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