This evidence summary was written by:

William B. Grant, Ph.D.
Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center (SUNARC)
P.O. Box 641603
San Francisco, CA 94164-1603, USA       

Complete bibliography of research used in this summary

We found a significant body of evidence when researching the role of vitamin D in hypertension. The research we have cited in our summary is listed below, with links to PubMed abstracts and full-text for those who wish to explore further.


Page last edited: 09 May 2011


  1. Alperovitch, A. Lacombe, J. M. Hanon, O. Dartigues, J. F. Ritchie, K. Ducimetiere, P. Tzourio, C. Relationship between blood pressure and outdoor temperature in a large sample of elderly individuals: the Three-City study. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Jan 12; 169 (1): 75-80.
  2. Anderson, J. L. May, H. T. Horne, B. D. Bair, T. L. Hall, N. L. Carlquist, J. F. Lappe, D. L. Muhlestein, J. B. Relation of vitamin D deficiency to cardiovascular risk factors, disease status, and incident events in a general healthcare population. Am J Cardiol. 2010 Oct 1; 106 (7): 963-8.
  3. Atlas, S. A. Patel, S. S. Vitamin D levels and the risk of hypertension. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2007 Dec; 9 (6): 447-9.
  4. Barreto, D. V. Barreto, F. C. Liabeuf, S. Temmar, M. Boitte, F. Choukroun, G. Fournier, A. Massy, Z. A. Vitamin D affects survival independently of vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009 Jun; 4 (6): 1128-35.
  5. Boldo, A. Campbell, P. Luthra, P. White, W. B. Should the concentration of vitamin D be measured in all patients with hypertension?. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2010 Mar; 12 (3): 149-52.
  6. Boucher, B. J. Inadequate vitamin D status: does it contribute to the disorders comprising syndrome ‘X’?. Br J Nutr. 1998 Apr; 79 (4): 315-27.
  7. Brancati, F. L. Appel, L. J. Seidler, A. J. Whelton, P. K. Effect of potassium supplementation on blood pressure in African Americans on a low-potassium diet. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 1996 Jan 8; 156 (1): 61-7.
  8. Burgaz, A. Byberg, L. Rautiainen, S. Orsini, N. Hakansson, N. Arnlov, J. Sundstrom, J. Lind, L. Melhus, H. Michaelsson, K. Wolk, A. Confirmed hypertension and plasma 25(OH)D concentrations amongst elderly men. J Intern Med. 2010 Oct 29;
  9. Carlin, A. M. Yager, K. M. Rao, D. S. Vitamin D depletion impairs hypertension resolution after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Am J Surg. 2008 Mar; 195 (3): 349-52; discussion 352.
  10. Chen, L. Caballero, B. Mitchell, D. C. Loria, C. Lin, P. H. Champagne, C. M. Elmer, P. J. Ard, J. D. Batch, B. C. Anderson, C. A. Appel, L. J. Reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with reduced blood pressure: a prospective study among United States adults. Circulation. 2010 Jun 8; 121 (22): 2398-406.
  11. Chen, S. T. Maruthur, N. M. Appel, L. J. The effect of dietary patterns on estimated coronary heart disease risk: results from the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) trial. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2010 Sep; 3 (5): 484-9.
  12. Chrysant, S. G. Chrysant, G. S. Effectiveness of lowering blood pressure to prevent stroke versus to prevent coronary events. Am J Cardiol. 2010 Sep 15; 106 (6): 825-9.
  13. Cozzolino, M. Ketteler, M. Zehnder, D. The vitamin D system: a crosstalk between the heart and kidney. Eur J Heart Fail. 2010 Oct; 12 (10): 1031-41.
  14. Crack, P. J. Autelitano, D. J. Smith, A. I. The involvement of nitric oxide in the secretion of beta-endorphin from the pituitary intermediate lobe of the rat. Brain Res. 1997 Jun 27; 761 (1): 113-20.
  15. Dhingra, R. Sullivan, L. Jacques, P. F. Wang, T. J. Fox, C. S. Meigs, J. B. D’Agostino, R. B. Gaziano, J. M. Vasan, R. S. Soft drink consumption and risk of developing cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged adults in the community. Circulation. 2007 Jul 31; 116 (5): 480-8.
  16. Elliott, P. Marmot, M. Dyer, A. Joossens, J. Kesteloot, H. Stamler, R. Stamler, J. Rose, G. The INTERSALT study: main results, conclusions and some implications. Clin Exp Hypertens A. 1989; 11 (5-6): 1025-34.
  17. Feneis, J. F. Arora, R. R. Role of vitamin D in blood pressure homeostasis. Am J Ther. 2010 Nov-Dec; 17 (6): e221-9.
  18. Forman, J. P. Bischoff-Ferrari, H. A. Willett, W. C. Stampfer, M. J. Curhan, G. C. Vitamin D intake and risk of incident hypertension: results from three large prospective cohort studies. Hypertension. 2005 Oct; 46 (4): 676-82.
  19. Forman, J. P. Curhan, G. C. Taylor, E. N. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Risk of Incident Hypertension Among Young Women. Hypertension. 2008 Oct 6;
  20. Forman, J. P. Fisher, N. D. Pollak, M. R. Cox, D. G. Tonna, S. Curhan, G. C. Renin-angiotensin system polymorphisms and risk of hypertension: influence of environmental factors. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2008 Jun; 10 (6): 459-66.
  21. Forman, J. P. Giovannucci, E. Holmes, M. D. Bischoff-Ferrari, H. A. Tworoger, S. S. Willett, W. C. Curhan, G. C. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of incident hypertension. Hypertension. 2007 May; 49 (5): 1063-9.
  22. Forman, J. P. Williams, J. S. Fisher, N. D. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and regulation of the renin-angiotensin system in humans. Hypertension. 2010 May; 55 (5): 1283-8.
  23. Fraser, A. Williams, D. Lawlor, D. A. Associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone and calcium with cardiovascular risk factors: analysis of 3 NHANES cycles (2001-2006). PLoS One. 2010; 5 (11): e13882.
  24. Geleijnse, J. M. Vitamin D and the Prevention of Hypertension and Cardiovascular Diseases: A Review of the Current Evidence. Am J Hypertens. 2010 Sep 16;
  25. Giovannucci, E. Liu, Y. Hollis, B. W. Rimm, E. B. 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of myocardial infarction in men: a prospective study. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Jun 9; 168 (11): 1174-80.
  26. Grant, W. B. Relation between prediagnostic serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and incidence of breast, colorectal, and other cancers. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2010 May 12;
  27. Griffin, F. C. Gadegbeku, C. A. Sowers, M. R. Vitamin D and Subsequent Systolic Hypertension Among Women. Am J Hypertens. 2010 Nov 18;
  28. Hulter, H. N. Melby, J. C. Peterson, J. C. Cooke, C. R. Chronic continuous PTH infusion results in hypertension in normal subjects. J Clin Hypertens. 1986 Dec; 2 (4): 360-70.
  29. Jablonski, K. L. Chonchol, M. Pierce, G. L. Walker, A. E. Seals, D. R. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D deficiency is associated with inflammation-linked vascular endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged and older adults. Hypertension. 2011 Jan; 57 (1): 63-9.
  30. Jorde, R. Figenschau, Y. Emaus, N. Hutchinson, M. Grimnes, G. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are strongly related to systolic blood pressure but do not predict future hypertension. Hypertension. 2010 Mar; 55 (3): 792-8.
  31. Judd, S. E. Nanes, M. S. Ziegler, T. R. Wilson, P. W. Tangpricha, V. Optimal vitamin D status attenuates the age-associated increase in systolic blood pressure in white Americans: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jan; 87 (1): 136-41.
  32. Judd, S. E. Raiser, S. N. Kumari, M. Tangpricha, V. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 reduces systolic blood pressure in hypertensive adults: a pilot feasibility study. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010 Jul; 121 (1-2): 445-7.
  33. Kawamoto, R. Kohara, K. Tabara, Y. Abe, M. Kusunoki, T. Miki, T. Insulin resistance and prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension among community-dwelling persons. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2010 Feb 26; 17 (2): 148-55.
  34. Kim, M. K. Il Kang, M. Won Oh, K. Kwon, H. S. Lee, J. H. Lee, W. C. Yoon, K. H. Son, H. Y. The association of serum vitamin D level with presence of metabolic syndrome and hypertension in middle-aged Korean subjects. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2010 Sep; 73 (3): 330-8.
  35. Krause, R. Buhring, M. Hopfenmuller, W. Holick, M. F. Sharma, A. M. Ultraviolet B and blood pressure. Lancet. 1998 Aug 29; 352 (9129): 709-10.
  36. Kulah, E. Dursun, A. Aktunc, E. Acikgoz, S. Aydin, M. Can, M. Effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism and serum vitamin D levels on ambulatory blood pressure measurement and left ventricular mass in Turkish hypertensive population. Blood Press Monit. 2007 Aug; 12 (4): 207-13.
  37. Lappe, J. M. Davies, K. M. Travers-Gustafson, D. Heaney, R. P. Vitamin D status in a rural postmenopausal female population. J Am Coll Nutr. 2006 Oct; 25 (5): 395-402.
  38. Lee, H. Y. Oh, B. H. Aging and arterial stiffness. Circ J. 2010 Oct 25; 74 (11): 2257-62.
  39. Manrique, C. Lastra, G. Gardner, M. Sowers, J. R. The renin angiotensin aldosterone system in hypertension: roles of insulin resistance and oxidative stress. Med Clin North Am. 2009 May; 93 (3): 569-82.
  40. Margolis, K. L. Ray, R. M. Van Horn, L. Manson, J. E. Allison, M. A. Black, H. R. Beresford, S. A. Connelly, S. A. Curb, J. D. Grimm, R. H., Jr. Kotchen, T. A. Kuller, L. H. Wassertheil-Smoller, S. Thomson, C. A. Torner, J. C. Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure: the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Trial. Hypertension. 2008 Nov; 52 (5): 847-55.
  41. Martini, L. A. Wood, R. J. Vitamin D and blood pressure connection: update on epidemiologic, clinical, and mechanistic evidence. Nutr Rev. 2008 May; 66 (5): 291-7.
  42. Matias, P. J. Ferreira, C. Jorge, C. Borges, M. Aires, I. Amaral, T. Gil, C. Cortez, J. Ferreira, A. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3, arterial calcifications and cardiovascular risk markers in haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009 Feb; 24 (2): 611-8.
  43. Maverakis, E. Miyamura, Y. Bowen, M. P. Correa, G. Ono, Y. Goodarzi, H. Light, including ultraviolet. J Autoimmun. 2010 May; 34 (3): J247-57.
  44. McNaughton, S. A. Ball, K. Mishra, G. D. Crawford, D. A. Dietary patterns of adolescents and risk of obesity and hypertension. J Nutr. 2008 Feb; 138 (2): 364-70.
  45. Nagpal, J. Pande, J. N. Bhartia, A. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the short-term effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on insulin sensitivity in apparently healthy, middle-aged, centrally obese men. Diabet Med. 2009 Jan; 26 (1): 19-27.
  46. Oplander, C. Volkmar, C. M. Paunel-Gorgulu, A. van Faassen, E. E. Heiss, C. Kelm, M. Halmer, D. Murtz, M. Pallua, N. Suschek, C. V. Whole body UVA irradiation lowers systemic blood pressure by release of nitric oxide from intracutaneous photolabile nitric oxide derivates. Circ Res. 2009 Nov 6; 105 (10): 1031-40.
  47. O’Seaghdha, C. M. Perkovic, V. Lam, T. H. McGinn, S. Barzi, F. Gu, D. F. Cass, A. Suh, I. Muntner, P. Giles, G. G. Ueshima, H. Woodward, M. Huxley, R. Blood pressure is a major risk factor for renal death: an analysis of 560 352 participants from the Asia-Pacific region. Hypertension. 2009 Sep; 54 (3): 509-15.
  48. Peter, I. Otremski, I. Livshits, G. Geographic variation in vascular mortality in Eurasia: spatial autocorrelation analysis of mortality variables and risk factors. Ann Hum Biol. 1996 Nov-Dec; 23 (6): 471-90.
  49. Pfeifer, M. Begerow, B. Minne, H. W. Suppan, K. Fahrleitner-Pammer, A. Dobnig, H. Effects of a long-term vitamin D and calcium supplementation on falls and parameters of muscle function in community-dwelling older individuals. Osteoporos Int. 2009 Feb; 20 (2): 315-22.
  50. Pilz, S. Tomaschitz, A. Role of vitamin D in arterial hypertension. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2010 Nov; 8 (11): 1599-608.
  51. Pilz, S. Tomaschitz, A. Drechsler, C. Zittermann, A. Dekker, J. M. März, W. Vitamin D Supplementation: A Promising Approach for the Prevention and Treatment of Strokes. Curr Drug Targets. 2010;
  52. Pilz, S. Tomaschitz, A. Ritz, E. Pieber, T. R. Vitamin D status and arterial hypertension: a systematic review. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2009 Oct; 6 (10): 621-30.
  53. Pittas, A. G. Chung, M. Trikalinos, T. Mitri, J. Brendel, M. Patel, K. Lichtenstein, A. H. Lau, J. Balk, E. M. Systematic review: Vitamin D and cardiometabolic outcomes. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Mar 2; 152 (5): 307-14.
  54. Player, M. S. Mainous, A. G., 3rd Diaz, V. A. Everett, C. J. Prehypertension and insulin resistance in a nationally representative adult population. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2007 Jun; 9 (6): 424-9.
  55. Pollard, T. M. Brush, G. Harrison, G. A. Geographic distributions of within-population variability in blood pressure. Hum Biol. 1991 Oct; 63 (5): 643-61.
  56. Rostand, S. G. Ultraviolet light may contribute to geographic and racial blood pressure differences. Hypertension. 1997 Aug; 30 (2 Pt 1): 150-6.
  57. Ruggenenti, P. Cattaneo, D. Loriga, G. Ledda, F. Motterlini, N. Gherardi, G. Orisio, S. Remuzzi, G. Ameliorating hypertension and insulin resistance in subjects at increased cardiovascular risk: effects of acetyl-L-carnitine therapy. Hypertension. 2009 Sep; 54 (3): 567-74.
  58. Sugden, J. A. Davies, J. I. Witham, M. D. Morris, A. D. Struthers, A. D. Vitamin D improves endothelial function in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and low vitamin D levels. Diabet Med. 2008 Mar; 25 (3): 320-5.
  59. Takenaka, T. Kojima, E. Sueyoshi, K. Sato, T. Uchida, K. Arai, J. Hoshi, H. Kato, N. Takane, H. Suzuki, H. Seasonal variations of daily changes in blood pressure among hypertensive patients with end-stage renal diseases. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2010 Jul; 32 (4): 227-33.
  60. Vaidya, A. Forman, J. P. Vitamin D and hypertension: current evidence and future directions. Hypertension. 2010 Nov; 56 (5): 774-9.
  61. Vaidya, A. Forman, J. P. Williams, J. S. Vitamin D and the vascular sensitivity to angiotensin II in obese Caucasians with hypertension. J Hum Hypertens. 2010 Dec 2;
  62. Vaidya, A. Pojoga, L. Underwood, P. C. Forman, J. P. Hopkins, P. N. Williams, G. H. Williams, J. S. The Association of Plasma Resistin with Dietary Sodium Manipulation, the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System, and 25-Hydroxyvitamin D(3) in Human Hypertension. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2010 Nov 2;
  63. Verhave, G. Siegert, C. E. Role of vitamin D in cardiovascular disease. Neth J Med. 2010 Mar; 68 (3): 113-8.
  64. Weber, K. T. Rosenberg, E. W. Sayre, R. M. Suberythemal ultraviolet exposure and reduction in blood pressure. Am J Med. 2004 Aug 15; 117 (4): 281-2.
  65. Witham, M. D. Nadir, M. A. Struthers, A. D. Effect of vitamin D on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Hypertens. 2009 Oct; 27 (10): 1948-54.
  66. Wong, M. S. Delansorne, R. Man, R. Y. Svenningsen, P. Vanhoutte, P. M. Chronic treatment with vitamin D lowers arterial blood pressure and reduces endothelium-dependent contractions in the aorta of the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010 Oct; 299 (4): H1226-34.
  67. Wu, S. H. Ho, S. C. Zhong, L. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure. South Med J. 2010 Aug; 103 (8): 729-37.
  68. Zelinski, L. M. Ohgami, Y. Quock, R. M. Exposure to nitrous oxide stimulates a nitric oxide-dependent neuronal release of beta-endorphin in ventricular-cisternally-perfused rats. Brain Res. 2009 Dec 1; 130037-40.
  69. Zhao, G. Ford, E. S. Li, C. Kris-Etherton, P. M. Etherton, T. D. Balluz, L. S. Independent associations of serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone with blood pressure among US adults. J Hypertens. 2010 Sep; 28 (9): 1821-8.