Randomized controlled trials have shown that taking 1000-2000 IU/day during the influenza season greatly reduce the risk of pneumonia.
There is good evidence that vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for pneumonia.
For example, a study in Ethiopia found that children under the age of 5 years diagnosed with pneumonia were 13 times more likely to have rickets as those without pneumonia1. Pneumonia is also frequently found in children with rickets2. Vitamin D deficiency is the primary cause of rickets.
Page last edited: 06 May 2011
- Muhe, L. Lulseged, S. Mason, K. E. Simoes, E. A. Case-control study of the role of nutritional rickets in the risk of developing pneumonia in Ethiopian children. Lancet. 1997 Jun 21; 349 (9068): 1801-4.
- Banajeh, S. M. Nutritional rickets and vitamin D deficiency–association with the outcomes of childhood very severe pneumonia: a prospective cohort study. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2009 Dec; 44 (12): 1207-15.
- Britten, R. H. The incidence of epidemic influenza, 1918-19. Pub Health Rep. 1932; 47303-39.
- Hanslik, T. Boelle, P. Y. Flahault, A. Preliminary estimation of risk factors for admission to intensive care units and for death in patients infected with A(H1N1)2009 influenza virus, France, 2009-2010. PLoS Curr Influenza. RRN1150.
- Cannell, J. J. Vieth, R. Umhau, J. C. Holick, M. F. Grant, W. B. Madronich, S. Garland, C. F. Giovannucci, E. Epidemic influenza and vitamin D. Epidemiol Infect. 2006 Dec; 134 (6): 1129-40.
- Cannell, J. J. Zasloff, M. Garland, C. F. Scragg, R. Giovannucci, E. On the epidemiology of influenza. Virol J. 2008; 529.
- Sabetta, J. R. DePetrillo, P. Cipriani, R. J. Smardin, J. Burns, L. A. Landry, M. L. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections in healthy adults. PLoS One. 5 (6): e11088.